Researchers working in the field of ecosystem services have long acknowledged the importance of recognising multiple values in ecosystems and biodiversity. Yet the operationalisation of value pluralism in ecosystem service assessments remains largely elusive. The aim of this research is to present a taxonomy of values and valuation methods to widen the evaluative space for ecosystem services. First, we present our preanalytic positions in regards to values and valuation of ecosystem services. Second, we review different value definitions that we deem relevant for the discussion of ecosystem services valuation. Third, we propose a taxonomy of ecosystem service values based on different conceptions of human-nature relationships. Finally, we present a taxonomy of different methods that can be used to recognise plural values in ecosystem services. This taxonomy for a plural valuation of ecosystem services can help ES scientists and practitioners with the aim of representing people's multiple and context specific ways of valuing nature. The taxonomy can also serve to pay broader attention to ES values that are overlooked or misrepresented in assessments that restrict their focus to monetary valuations.
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